During conferences, Appellate Court participants will serve as either a Justice or an Attorney, with attorneys separated into Appellants (representing the party that filed the appeal) and Respondents (representing the party who is defending against the appeal). During the Appellate Court proceedings, the attorneys present an oral argument to a panel of justices who hear the case and then draft one or more opinions to decide the case. Both attorneys and justices are given cases and back-up material to study between T&E II and the MLC conferences. Attorneys are required to speak in front of their panel of justices and field questions. Justices ask attorneys questions and then meet in their group to discuss their case. The Appellate Court program consists of approximately 250 participants, and is part of the Court Track.
Appellate Court Appointed Leadership: Lead Appellant, Lead Justice, and Lead Respondent.
Along with the members of the Senate, the members of the Assembly are primarily concerned with the passage of Legislation. All members of the Assembly (and Senate) are also voting members of our Legislative Committees. During conference, Assembly members will debate bills in Committee and debate bills on the Floor of the Assembly. Assembly members speak during their Committee and have the opportunity to speak in front of the entire Assembly. The Assembly program is comprised of a Blue group and a Gold group. Both consisting of approximately 150 participants, and is part of the Legislative Track.
Assembly Appointed Leadership: Legislative Committee Chair
Assembly Elected Leadership: Chief Clerk (3), Chief Sgt-at-Arms (3), Speaker of the Assembly, Speaker Pro-Tem (2)
During conferences, the Bench Trial program (formerly known as the Trial Court) participants are split into teams of two and will serve as either a prosecuting attorney, or a defense attorney. Attorneys will be taught the basics of how to try a case, such as opening/closing statements, direct examinations, cross examinations, and evidence. The program culminates in the halls of the Sacramento County Superior Court, where each team will argue in front of a judge. Attorney’s work in teams of two and speak in front of a small group. The Bench Trial program consists of approximately 215 participants. The Bench Trial is part of the Court Track.
BOARD OF EDUCATION
The Board of Education focuses on a current issue facing education in California. The delegates analyze what potential improvements could be made, and why those changes should be put into effect. Board of Education members are divided into Boards, presided over by Superintendents. Task forces create proposals to improve the educational outcomes of California’s students by exploring an aspect of the main topic. These groups research their position on the topic, hear experts speak, write a proposal, advocate their solution to the problem, and present those proposals for solution before a Board of Education panel. Board members work and present in a small group of 5-7 delegates and have an opportunity to advocate for their position as a speaker on the proposal or directly from the Board panel as a sitting member. The Board of Education program consists of approximately 150 delegates.
Board of Education Leadership: State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction
CALIFORNIA EMERGENCY TEAM
The California Emergency Team is a dynamic program area in which participants will work to solve a crisis facing the State of California. Each year, the staff team will manufacture a crisis to be managed by the California Emergency Team. Natural Disasters, Constitutional Crisis and dividing California into five separate states have all been previously addressed by the California Emergency Team. Participants in the California Emergency Team program may use court injunctions, emergency legislation and other legal remedies to solve the problem with which they are presented. California Emergency Team is part of the Court Track.
California Emergency Team Leadership: Director of CET
CALIFORNIA INVESTMENT BANK
Delegates in the California Investment Bank program, led by the California State Treasurer, are broken into groups where they either serve on a board, commission, or authority, or on a team representing a private business seeking funding. Through the issuance and sale of state bonds, the State Treasurer raises money, while the boards, authorities, and commissions disseminate those funds. Delegates representing private businesses present their ideas for solving a problem or completing a project to the representatives of the Treasury in order to obtain funding for their proposals. The California Investment Bank program consists of approximately 30 participants and is part of the Finance Track. This popular program functions as Youth and Government’s own “Shark-Tank”, can work easily with other program areas, works across program years, and introduces aspects often unknown or misunderstood aspects of government to participants.
California Investment Bank Appointed Leadership: California State Treasurer
The State Constitutional Convention is designed to provide hands-on creation of a Constitution for the state of California. As such, Delegates create the document from scratch without the benefit or hindrance of a survey of current or prior versions of the California Constitution. Throughout the program, participants are immersed in constitutional issues ranging from voting rights to resource use to property rights all while learning the difference between the federal and state constitutions. Training for this program is highly interactive as Delegates engage one another over constitutional concepts in one-on-one, small group and large group speaking opportunities. Working within the frame of the U.S. Constitution, delegates work together to draft a new California Constitution. Delegates will speak one-on-one, in small groups, and large groups. The Constitutional Convention (Con Con) consists of approximately 200 participants, and is part of the Reform Track.
Constitutional Convention Elected Leadership Positions: Presiding Speaker, Speaker Pro-Tem
The Department of Finance (DOF) members are separated into groups of 50 and will be competing against the other group to write a solvent California budget. Delegates will have the opportunity to speak in front of small and medium sized groups. The Department of Finance consists of approximately 100 participants and is part of the Legislative Track.
Department of Finance Appointed Leadership: Budget Committee Chair, Deputy Director, and DOF Chief of Staff, Director of the Department of Finance
All 9th graders are assigned to the Forum program. The Forum program is affectionately referred to as a “model within a model.” This is because Forum offers delegates an opportunity to see how the entire program works by allowing them to participate in both the Forum Legislature as well as another role, such as Forum Court, Forum Lobbyist, Forum Media, etc. All members of the Forum are initially split into committees of 16-20 delegates and assigned a topic (anything from social media responsibility to LGBTQ+ issues to prison reform). Each committee, assisted by a Forum Committee Advisor, writes one bill that will be debated in the Forum Legislature. Members of the Forum will have the opportunity to speak in front of small, medium, and large groups. The size of the program depends on how many 9th graders there are in a given year, though generally the Forum is well over 500 delegates.
Forum Appointed Leadership: Committee Chair
Forum Elected Leadership: Forum Chief Clerk of the Assembly, Forum Lt. Governor, Forum Secretary of the Senate, Forum Chief Sgt-at-Arms (both Houses), and Forum Speaker of the Assembly
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS COMMISSION
The International Affairs Commission (IAC) provides delegates with opportunities to learn and explore world problems and develop solutions to some of the world's most pressing issues. Delegates work in small teams (3-4) to learn about and then develop innovative solutions to international/world issues (clean and available water, human trafficking, whaling, air quality, deforestation, nuclear arms, immunizations, terrorism, poverty, famine, animal extinction, global pandemics, colonization, trade, woman’s rights, Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea, drug trafficking, adoption, infrastructure, etc.). The program is focused on collaborative work, research, technology based presentations, traditional public speaking and debate. The International Affairs Commission (IAC) started in 2014 and has expect approximately 115 participants this year.
International Affairs Commission Appointed Leadership: Special Rapporteur
International Affairs Commission Elected Leadership: Chief Rapporteur
The Jury Trial program is a smaller program area within the Court track. Students apply to be part of the Jury Trial program once they are placed in the Court program. It is an advanced version of the Bench Trial program. Applicants are interviewed at T&E II and will be selected to act as prosecutors, defense attorneys, or judges. Participants are expected to work hard and will be speaking in front of small groups. Jury Trial has 15 participants, 14 appointed and 1 elected by the Court Track.
Jury Trial Elected Leadership: District Attorney
Legislative Analysts are paired up and assigned at least two pieces of legislation. The Legislative Analysts serve as impartial experts on the fiscal/policy impacts of their assigned legislation. Other than the participants in the Assembly/Senate, they are the only program that gets to speak in Legislative Committees and on the Floors. Best of all though, the Legislative Analyst program is the only program within Youth and Government that provides delegates with a front row seat to the entire legislative process. Meaning, only Legislative Analysts can follow a bill from introduction, through committees, to both chambers, and then to the Governor. Members of the Assembly or Senate are not even as fortunate. Participants speak in front of small and large groups. The Legislative Analyst program consists of approximately 60 participants and is part of the Legislative Track. It works in close concert with the Department of Finance and the California Investment Bank.
Legislative Analyst Elected Leadership: State Legislative Analyst
At the start of T&E II, Lobbyists are separated into Political Action Committees (PACs) and assigned pieces of legislation. It’s the Lobbyist’s job to make sure bills pass, or fail, in their Legislative Committees. After all the Committees have finished and the Legislators are in session, the PACs meet and write Initiatives. Once their Initiatives are written, they need to get enough delegate signatures to get them on the ballot. Lobbyists work in groups and speak in front of small groups. The Lobbyist program consists of approximately 200 participants and is part of the Legislative Track.
Lobbyist Appointed Leadership: Governor’s Lobbyist
The Media program is the combination of our Broadcast Media and Press Corps (formerly Print Media) programs. It will focus on the media's role as the government's "fourth estate" and on effective journalism. It will also include written material, social media, and a broadcasted news program. The Media program will consist of approximately 140 participants and is part of the Unique Track.
Media Appointed Leadership: Various
NATIONAL ISSUES COMMISSION
The National Issues Commission (NIC) program consists of approximately 250 participants. Each NIC participant writes proposals that are of national importance, and each proposal is presented by the author in a small group (14-16). This small group hears the author, debates and and then ranks the proposal on 5 criteria (Feasibility, Debatability, Importance, Creativity and Research). Highly ranked proposals move on to subsequent rounds of debate, each time in front of an ever larger group of NIC participants. The proposals that are successful in all three rounds are then debated in front of the entire NIC program, in General Assembly (GA).
National Issues Commission Appointed Leadership: NIC Commission Chair National Issues Commission Elected Leadership: Administrative Clerk, Adversary General, and Presiding Commissioner (4)
The Political Parties program gives participants a chance to run a political campaign and help get candidates elected. Each of the four parties is headed up by a Party Chair, who will help shape the party’s platform, select party leadership, and coordinate the party’s efforts to recruit both officer candidates and party membership. The Political Parties program consists of approximately 100 participants and is part of the Unique Track.
Political Parties Appointed Leadership: Party Chair
SECRETARY OF STATE'S OFFICE
The Secretary of State (SOS) works with the legislative houses and the Governor’s office to conduct and certify elections as well as serving as the moderator during Statewide meet the candidate sessions. The Secretary of State is also responsible for leading the Under Secretaries of State as they assist in conducting the business of the office including the processing of all legislation. All members of the SOS program are either elected (Secretary of State) or appointed (Undersecretaries of State).
Appointed Leadership: Undersecretaries of State Elected Leadership: Secretary of State
Along with the members of the Assembly, the members of the Senate are primarily concerned with the passage of Legislation. All members of the Senate (and Assembly) are also voting members of our Legislative Committees. During conference, Senators will debate bills in Committee and debate bills on the Floor of the Senate. Senators speak during their Committee and have the opportunity to speak in front of the entire Senate. The Senate program is comprised of a Blue group and a Gold group. Both consisting of approximately 150 participants, and is part of the Legislative Track.
Senate Appointed Leadership Positions: Committee Chair
Senate Elected Leadership Positions: Lt. Governor, President Pro-Tem (2), Secretary of the Senate (2), and Chief Sgt-at-Arms (2)
The Supreme Court is application only, and is an advanced version of the Appellate Court program. Applicants are interviewed at T&E II and will be selected to act as attorneys, or justices. Participants receive advanced court training and are expected to arrive a day early to the MLC conference in February, for additional training. Participants are expected to work hard and will be speaking in front of small groups. The Supreme Court consists of 13 participants and is part of the Court Track.
Supreme Court Elected Leadership: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Attorney General